Mostly tolerated Hinduism, Sikhs, and Buddhism which helped stability
The Great Mughal Emperors
Babur (1526-1530) The First of the Mughals
Akbar (1556-1605) The Great
Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder
Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Intolerant
Babur 1526 - 1530
defeated Delhi Sultanate in 1526
Direct descendent of Ghengis Khan and Tamerlane
gunpowder, cannons, a skilled commander, trained soldiers on horses contributed to the victory
made Agra his new capital.
Akbar ([Y]uckber) the Great 1556 - 1605
Indian equivalent of Suleiman the Magnificent
divided empire into provinces & used governors
introduced standard weights and measures, tax structures and a workable police force.
Married at least seven wives including one Hindu princess
best known for tolerance, especially toward Hindus.
removed the poll tax on Hindus,
invited religious scholars, including Hindus, Jews, and Christians, to debate him in his private chambers
Akbar’s capital is at Fatehpur Sikri
In Agra he built the Agra Fort.
Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658
Allowed foreign traders into India and trade increased considerably.
built the Taj Mahal and the Peacock Throne
imposed heavy taxes on people
Demanded half of all crops
Led to hardship, famine for many
Aurangzeb deposed Shah Jehan & imprisoned in Agra Fort
The Taj Mahal built in honor of his wife who died during childbirth.
It was built as a tribute and final resting place for his wife.
nearly bankrupted the empire.
20,000 laborers 17 years to complete the job
Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707The Mean
persecuted the Hindus & Sikhs of N. India.
increased taxes further
crushed independent Hindu states
more interested in promoting Islam than maintaining Indian stability
forbade music and arts to focus on military and Islam
Led to rebellions against Mughals
Empire began to decline as a result
Mughal India Economics
Very wealthy empire
money spent on architecture and war
creation of a road system; Grand Trunk Road
Cities grew rapidly
State-owned karkhanas (factories) produced luxury goods.
Silk and COTTON textiles
sold throughout the world.
advanced shipbuilding industry
Mughal India Religion
Rulers were a Sufi Muslim minority
Generally treated Hindus well
Sikhs – historically Islam and Hinduism mixed
one creater, invisible God (M)
believe in reincarnation (H)
goal of existence to be freed from cycle of rebirth, attain unity with God (H)
Do not practice rituals like pilgrimage, yoga, from the earlier religions
Wear turbans, carry a knife, don’t cut beard
Mughal India Social Hierarchy
population 110 and 130 million
Caste system present but less important
Women gain rights under Islam
people of all castes honored by Sultan.
The middle class of traders
90% were poor farmers who were heavily taxed
Mughal India Intellectual Life
Loved art and architecture
Mughal India Art
Mughal architectural style = Hindu and Islamic
Great wealth led to awesome buildings
weakened by wars of succession,
agrarian crises fueling local revolts,
growth of religious intolerance,
the rise of regional empires
European imperialism starting with Portuguese in 1490s
British colonialism eventually dominates India
Mughal India Legacy
first to blend Indian, Muslim, Persian and Central Asian customs
Centralised, imperialistic government brought together many smaller kingdoms.
New trade routes to Arab, European and Turkic lands.
FYI: The Urdu language developed from the Hindi language by borrowing heavily from Persian as well as Arabic and Chaghatai Turkic. Urdu developed as a result of the fusion of the Indian and Islamic cultures during the Mughal period. Modern Hindi which uses Sanskrit-based vocabulary along with loan words from Persian and Arabic, is mutually intelligible with Urdu.
Urdu is a great example of the margining of Islamic and Hindu cultures