Delhi Sultanate - 1210 - 1256
Invasions from Afghanistan continued until Muslims controlled Northern India
- Explains today’s Pakistan being Muslim
- Mostly Turkish people who had converted to Islam
- Turks protected India from Mongols for a long time (until Mughal India in 1526)
- The Sultans based their laws on the Qur'an and the sharia and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid jizya or head tax.
- Tried to changed architecture and society to Islam but only succeeded on the surface level since the workers were Indian
- Great Mosques built, colleges founded, irrigation systems improve, taxation increased especially for non-Muslims
Blending of Hindu and Islamic Social Life
- Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion left lasting monuments in architecture, music, literature, and religion
- Rulers tried to spread Muslim culture through India
- Invited artists, scholars from other parts of Islamic world to Delhi. Middle East, Africa, Spain, Central Asia
- New culture formed, blending Muslim, Indian elements
- Many Indians convert to Islam to avoid high taxes and to advanced in government work
- Princess Razia Sultana(1236-1240) -
- first queen of a Muslim state.
- popular and more intelligent than her brothers.
- Often dressed like a man
- Many Turks and Muslims resented her rule and she was assassinated
TIMUR aka Tamerlane - cruel Turkish Muslim conquerer related to Ghenghis Khan ended the Delhi Sultanate
- sacking of Delhi in 1398
- Timur conquered Persia, Iraq and Syria and central Asia where he conquered the Mongols, he decimated the civilian population, raped their women and children, looted properties and converted people to Islam by force.
- In the city of Isfahan, he ordered several pyramids to be built each made up of 40.000 human skulls from those that his army had beheaded, and a pyramid of some 20,000 skulls was erected outside Aleppo. Timur herded thousands of citizens from Damascus into the Cathedral Mosque before setting it aflame,and had 70,000 people beheaded in Tikrit, and 90,000 more in Baghdad. As many as 17 million people may have died during his conquests.
- a patron of the arts but also destroyed many great centres of learning during his conquests.
The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion left lasting monuments in architecture, music, literature, and religion. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the mingling of Sanskritic prakrits and the Persian, Turkish and Arabic favored by the Muslim rulers. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Sultanate to stake a claim to possessing one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultan (1236-1240).
The Sultans of Delhi enjoyed cordial, if superficial, relations with other Muslim rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. The Sultans based their laws on the Qur'an and the sharia and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid jizya or head tax. The Sultans ruled from urban centers--while military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for towns that sprang up in the countryside. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the thirteenth century
Major Accomplishments: Confucianism returns to the Chinese government, Buddhism becomes a force in China, Tang cities grow
population: approx. 70 million