Trade from Africa & middle east introduced new ideas and money to Italy
Corruption in church increased power of political leaders
Growth of cities spread markets and ideas
The plague created new opportunities and reduced cost for housing and food while increasing wages
New art and attitudes emphasizing people rather than God
Renaissance begins in Florence
Thinking and Questioning increase =
Humanism and Individualism
Development of Political Systems =
Nation-states and towns grow in importance
Artistic methods/thinking drastically change =
4 Turtles emphasize religion AND humanism
Voyages of Discovery =
Reformation of Religion =
Protestants and Civil Wars
POLITICS 1450-1750 or so
Rise of Nation-States 1450-1500
No formal states (countries) existed in 1400 anywhere in the world
Overview: Between 1400 and 2006, Europe changed from a decentralized group of 350 feudal states to about 40 nation states which are currently banding together in the European Union.
War, confusion and chaos during 14th and 15th C too much for feudal lords to handle.
Rise of the middle class (more money and power to merchant peasants) meant that the feudal lords were outpowered
Political Nation State begins
Divine Right & the monarch became absolute.
Centralization of govt. A centralized government = more stable (and less free) than a feudal govt.
Spain - 1469
Major Events of Ferdinand and Isabella: 1474-1516:
Unification of Spain into a nation state
The Discovery of the Americas (1492) by Christopher Columbus.
The Reconquista in 1492: The expulsion of the Muslims and Jews from Spain
The Holy Roman Empire: 800 - 1871
“The Holy Roman Empire - not Holy, not Roman, and not an Empire.” Voltaire
almost 300 semi-sovereign parts, over which an emperor ruled with little authority.
HRE did not establish a centralized govt
Holy Roman Empire
Charles I of Spain (V of HRE)
Settled by Anglo-Saxons
Christianized in about 450
Conquered by Vikings in 700s
Conquered by Normans in 1066
Feudal until 1485
Running feud with France because Normans are French and the English are Anglo
England – united in 1485
100 Years War (1337-1453) with France forced consolidation under the power of the king
Henry VII Tudor united England
War for the Roses
Louis XI (146183), restored unity and stability to France after Hundred Years' War.
Louis centralized royal power, using bribery, diplomacy, intrigue, treachery, and war.
began absolute monarchy in France,
promoted trade and towns which increased French wealth.
Louis XI the Spider King
Founded by Vikings and central Asian nomads
1215 – 1463 ruled by Mongols and Tartars
Ivan III of Moscow
refused to pay tribute to Mongols in 1455
Russia united behind him
Very barbaric compared to Western Europe
Ivan III the Great: 1462-1505
not a unified nation until the 19th century.
During the Renaissance ambitious rulers of France (Charles VIII and Francis II) and Spain (Charles V) invaded Italy and kept it from uniting
Niccoló Machiavelli wrote The Prince. Machiavelli was one of the first to call out for Italian unification.
Turkish Muslims who conquered Constantinople in 1453 now spread into Eastern Europe
Stopped at Vienna by Charles V
A constant threat to the power of European kings and a threat to the Pope
Characteristics of Nation – States (Countries)
Representative govt and a king
Stable government = possibility for economic, social and political growth rather than constant intranational war
Increased power and size of government so more people felt its power more directly
Increased competition between states rather than only within states
The Reformation of Christianity
Reformers criticized Catholic leaders for their corruption, indulgences, and immorality
encouraged German nobles to revolt against Pope
organizes Protestantism for Calvinists
Starts city in Geneva
encourages hard work and purer living
Martin Luther: Rebel with a Cause
Diet of Worms
John Calvin Predestination vs. Free Will
Revival in Christianity both Caths and Prots
Political leader power UP Catholic power DOWN
Education INCREASES so people can read BIBLE
Catholic Jesuits begin missionary work around world
ECONOMICS: Cottage Industry and The Factory System
The Beginning of the Industrial Revolution
The English Agricultural Revolution
Better crop planting
More efficient use of land
= more food and less farmers
The Industrial Revolution
Cottage Industry system leads to
Factories in the cities
Huge increase in city size, urban workers and great decline in quality of environment around the cities
But hey – we had a lot of stuff!
1700s: 90% of People are Farmers
Iron Plow – 1600s
Water Powered Mill
Seed Drilling Machine
Jethro Tull - 1701
The Cottage Industry
A Typical English Community Before and After Enclosure
To the City to Work in Factories
The Scientific Revolution 1543-1660
How can we know true knowledge?
Inductive thinking – Francis Bacon
Deductive thinking – Rene Descartes
Experimentation to prove hypotheses
4. Galileo – experiments to prove speed of gravity. Also used telescope to discover plants and examine the moon
5. Newton – experiments to show light’s prism and universal field of gravity. Also invented Calculus
Consequences of the Scientific Revolution
Rise of the “Scientific Community”
The Modern Scientific Method
Natural Laws can be discovered by Human Reason
“De-Spiritualized” the Universe
Mechanical View of the Universe
Deistic View of God
Spanish and Portuguese fund many men to explore in South America and Africa
England and France also control regions in Asia and N.A.
Europe begins its 500 year effort to control the world and profit from the imperialization of the rest of the world
Scientific Revolution Summary
The Scientific Revolution inEuropetook place in the years following the Renaissance, and it led to great change in the lives of Europeans. Philosophically, the Scientific Revolution revolutionized the way people thought about the universe, and that that change in ideas also contributed to a decrease in the power that the Catholic Church held over Europeans.
The Scientific Revolution occurred from 1543-1660 and gave birth to many new ideas regarding the workings of the universe. It truly built off the ideas of Humanism and Individualism that grew popular during the Renaissance, which lasted until approximately 1500. Sir Francis Bacon was a scientist who developed new ideas. He created a system of inductive and deductive thinking, which led to people rationalizing and thinking for themselves instead of believing anything that they were told. Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1573) was an older contributor to the revolution. He was very much interested in the heavenly bodies and wrote On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres. Copernicus successfully proved that heliocentricity, the idea that Earth revolves around the sun, which crushed the ethnocentric perception that mankind was at the center of the universe. This new development led people to have discrepancies with what their faith and thus far been teaching them. Rene Decartes was born in the midst of the Scientific Revolution in 1595. He was a valuable supporter of Bacon’s deductive logic principle and was an highly innovative. He stated that “I think, therefore, I am.” Decartes deducted the existence of God, which proved that newly developed scientific principles could effectively work alongside Christian beliefs. However, the coexistence of science and faith was not always easy. Scientist Galileo Galilee was threatened with excommunication by Pope Urban VIII before he retracted some of his statements that contradict4ed the Church’s teachings. This act effectively displayed the anxiety that the Church had when any new ideas were produced. Because there were now more options available, Europeans began considering the possibilities and comparing their viability to those of the Church’s beliefs. People began to think on their own and investigate instead of solely taking what was said to be true for the real truth.
The ultimate effect of the Scientific Revolution on the social realm of European life was that the Catholic Church drastically began to lose power over its members. This was because Christians were becoming more open-minded and free-thinking. They were growing to realize that Scripture and the Bible were not the sole interpreters of the world and its ways. The level of interest present regarding the field of science swelled tremendously. People like Johann Kepler (who developed the Three Laws of Planetary Motion), Tycho Brahe, and Nicholas Copernicus made numerous advanced, mainly in the astronomical aspect of the Revolution. Copernicus’ proven theory of heliocentricity directly contradicted the traditional Catholic teaching that God’s people were located at the center of the universe. Copernicus’ extensive research and proof caused people to believe his idea and abandon the poorly backed geocentricity theory. Instances like this continually appeared during the Scientific Revolution. Every discovery and development that was made detracted from the power of the Pope and his clergy.
The Scientific Revolution did not solely contribute new scientific ideas; it changed Europe’s entire view on the universe and its construction, and it gradually loosened the grip that the Catholic Church held on every aspect of its members’ lives.