Major Accomplishments: Manchu leaders in China, increased interaction with Europe, Opium Wars, Taiping Rebellion, fall of the empire because of a lack of modernization in China
QING (Manchu) Dynasty 1644 -1910
Manchus rule - not Han Chinese
2 % of the pop. = Manchu
Manchus used Chinese system but Chinese were forbidden to hold high national offices.
Continued Confucian civil service system.
The Neo-Confucian - obedience of subject to ruler continued
Manchu Qing expansion
conquered Outer Mongolia and into central Asia
Largest land area of any Chinese state
Built public buildings, public irrigation, walls, bridges and other infrastructure.
Light taxes to win popularity with people
international trade grew enormously especially with Japan and Europe
Exported porcelain, Silk and spices through maritime trade and Silk Road
Buddhism, Taoism and ancestor worship continue
Catholic and Protestant missionaries built churches and schools
Christianity outlawed in 1840s
TSH with Manchu at top
Han Chinese discriminated against
Wear hair braided in the back, which they found humiliating
forbid women to bind their feet but repealed because couldn’t enforce it
Intermarriage between the two groups was forbidden.
system of dual appointments was used--the Chinese were required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure loyalty
European influences enter Chinese thinking
European Christianity & liberalism emphasizing individualism, freedom, equality, and economic opportunity contradict Confucian ideals
Republican nationalism & Communism begin to enter Chinese thinking in late 1800s
Qing China does not modernize
focuses on the greatness of the past “the self strengthening movement”
Oops – the Europeans and Japanese gain trading concessions and some territory from China
art is imitative rather than original since Qing value money and trade more than beauty (not good Confucians)
Chinese literary and historical preservation projects saving China's ancient literature
Porcelain - new colors: green black yellow, dark blue and brilliant red .
QING Internal Rebellions
White Lotus Rebellion – frustrated Buddists attack government because of high taxes 1780s
Taiping Rebellion - 1840s
Chinese “brother of Jesus” recruits one million rebels and nearly takes out government before being killed
mixed elements of Christianity and traditional Chinese religion
believed in communal property, and the equality of men and women
20-30 million dead
Although pre-Communism in China, the Taiping Republlion foreshadowed it in several ways
Land was evenly distributed.
Outlawed, Slavery, Sale of women, foot-binding, prostitution, arranged marriages and polygamy.
The Taipings were also against use of opium, alcohol, and tobacco.
Over time, Taiping leaders began to violate most of these rules (especially alcohol and women) and their movement began to lose its loyal followers
Europe and Early Qing
Portuguese, Dutch and British all have trading rights but are carefully controlled by Qing
Catholic missionaries build churches and challenge Confucianism
Christians ignore the ban and continue to push into China during Qing
Great Britain traded silk and tea for opium from India
Sold opium to China
devastating since China addicted to opium
Farmers started to grow opium illegally – hurt food production
Chinese silver paid to Europe
QING Opium Wars
1773 Britain brought Indian opium to China
1839 A.D. the opium trade was abolished.
1839-1860 Opium Wars humiliate China
Britain claims Hong Kong
Treaty of Nanjing (1st of unequal treaties)
1844 – Chinese forced to allow Christian missionaries in again
Britain wins HUGE trading rights
QING Decline begins
Opium Wars and civil wars show China is weak
Europe and Japan and Korea attack
Korea declares independence
France takes Vietnam from China (Sino French War)
Japan takes Taiwan and gets trading rights (Treaty of Shimonoseki)
European Powers like Germany, Russia, Britain and France establish Spheres of influence (areas of military, business, transportation and communication) but still ruled by China
Peasant anger against Manchu
"Each year they [the Manchus] transform tens of millions of China's gold and silver into opium and extract several millions from the fat and marrow of the Chinese people and turn it into rouge and powder ... How could the rich not become poor? How could the poor abide by the law?”Michael, Franz. The Taiping Rebellion, page 23.
In 1900 – Spheres of Influence
China was controlled by Europeans economically
Lots of trade between Europe and China
Balance of trade favored Europe
China lost silver as they paid out to Europe
Created discord and frustration in Manchu Qing govt
Chinese traditionalists attack Europeans in cities and are defeated
End of Qing attempt to not modernize
Fall of the (Qing) Manchu
Empress Cixi is the last ruler of China with her son the last Emperor
Wasted money, lived luxuriously, cut military, lost respect of Chinese
1911 Qing Dynasty Collapsed without a clear path for a future ruler