Major Accomplishments: re-create Chinese cultural traditions like Confucianism and Civil Service Exam, China became rich from porcelin trade to Europe in exchange for silver, Ming Navy, great landscape painting
Ming China 1368- 1644
Why did the Yuan Dynasty Fall?
Yuan Mandate of Heaven lost
Famine, floods, rebellions all caused people to believe the Mongols had lost the Mandate of Heaven or the t'ien ming
The Hongjinjun peasant army(army with red scarf in the head) was one of the important powers in overthrowing the Yuan Emperor
Capital moved to Beijing in 1421.
Forbidden City built for Emperors
Time of greatest wealth in Chinese history
last native Emperors in Chinese history.
first to deal with Europeans arriving
Population of about 100 million
Emperor directly ruled rather than use chief ministers as Mongols had
New modernized and traditionally Chinese code of laws written
Civil service exam re-instated Chinese scholarship
Careful records kept (census, hereditary social hierarchy) and used to control peasants and strengthen kingdom
Ming Chinese Naval Power
expeditions sailed to E Asia, SE Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, the Middle East and E.Africa.
China was the world's greatest commercial naval power
62 ships 27,000 crew led by Admiral Zheng He from 1405 - 1433 including navigators, explorers, sailors, doctors, workers, Muslim teachers, and soldiers.
Treasure ships, 416 ft long
Horse ships, carrying tribute goods 339 ft
Troop transports, 220 ft long
Fuchuan warships, five-masted, 165 ft long
Patrol boats, eight-oared 120ft
Water tankers, with 1 month supply of fresh water. 415 ft
Modern historians suggest the ship size is exaggerated and say largest was probably about 250 ft long
Ming fleet extended Chinese influence
Tribute commitments from 35 countries
In 1435 Confucian scholars convinced emperor Hongxi that the voyages were wasteful, encouraged foreign ideas, and would ruin China
China continued its shift from agricultural and rural to commercial and urban
Porcelain production and painting (China) became VERY important
China, marked by the Ming style of blue painting on a white ceramic background sold to Europe in exchange for silver from S. America
Commercial port cities including Beijing, Nanjing, Yangzhou, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Xian and Chengdu formed to trade with Japan and Europe
food production and new farming tools improved nutrition for peasants and city dwellers
stocking the rice paddies with fish, which fertilized the rice .
peasants grew cash crops, such as cotton for clothing, indigo for clothing dyes, and sugar cane.
dramatic population growth, largely due to increased food supply on account of the agricultural revolution.
Champa rice introduced from southeast Asia:
grown in a little over half the growing season
much larger harvests.
– fields could be kept continuously in cultivation
– while still maintaining their fertility
Reforestation of China
Hong-wu's most aggressive agricultural project involved reforestation beginning in the 1390's.
Nanjing was reforested with 50 million trees in1391; these trees became the lumber that built thnaval fleet put together by Yung-lo in the early1400's.• All in all, over one billion trees were planted inthis decade in a reforestation project that greatlyreplenished both the timber and the food supply.
Ming Industrial Development
textiles, paper, silk, and porcelain traded with Japan, Europe (especially Spain), India, SE Asia and Indonesian islands for
firearms, and American goods such as sugar, potatoes, and tobacco.
In exchange for raw goods such as silver—probably half the silver mined in the Americas from the mid-1500's to 1800 ended up in China
technological boom in every area from silk looms to paper manufacture to the development of new machines for planting, growing, and harvesting crops.
The Dutch imported tea from China and started the English and European love of tea
Dutch East India Tea Company and later the British East India Tea Company become powerful and wealthy from this trade
Trading tea to China was more profitable than trading silver to China as the Spanish had done
Matteo Ricci (Italian) the first Christian missionary started nearly 300 Catholic churches but Christian influence condemned in late Ming and early Qing
Muslims and Buddhists continued to grow in influence as well
MING Social Life
– New art, literature and musical styles especially in opera
– GREAT china dishes sold for huge profit to Europe
Still emphasizes landscape and nature scenes
MING Intellectual Life
Literacy increased and books became cheaper because of the printing press and a stable govt
Yongle Dadian was regarded as the biggest and earliest encyclopedia in the world.
a man named Wan Hoo even tried to fly to the sky by sitting in a chair propelled by gunpowder sticks. Unfortunately, he failed.
MING Great Wall
Great Walls had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watch towers were redesigned and cannons were placed along the wall
China and sculpture important
Painting and other visual arts
Drama and poetry
Ming Vases blue and white design that is common for Ming china
MING DYNASTY DECLINE
corruption of the court officials and the domination of the eunuchs. In that period, both the exploitation from the ruling class and natural disasters caused the rebellions that racked the country in the 17th century and
– the aggressive military expansion of the Manchus.
By 1643 the government was bankrupt from fighting and the peasants were broke because of the constant taxes imposed to pay the armies to fight
The MING ends
Northern Chinese Manchu slowly grew in power until they threatened the Ming Dynasty
Ming military grew weak so Ming often used Manchu to stop the “barbarians” from taking China
One leader, Manchu rebel Li Zicheng, eventually decided to take China rather than protecting it. He entered Beijing in 1644 as he did so the last Ming emperor,Chongzhen, hanged himself on a tree overlookiing the forbidden palace