•N. Africa, gold, salt trade, Muslim, built larger and more cities. Most important SLAVE TRADERS with Europe
•trans-Saharan trade routes. Gold, kola nuts, and slaves were sent north in exchange for cloth, utensils, and salt.
Slavery with European states
•European cities along coast used to buy and sell African slaves for profit in Americas especially Brazil and Caribbean to work on sugar plantations
•15 million taken, 10 million survived
•European imperialization – 1885 – 1950s European nations divided Africa into regions of control and brought some civilization and industry to Africa while using their labor and raw resources for European wealth and power