European Imperialism In Africa: 1885 - c. 1950 AD

Major Accomplishments: important to note both the negative and the positive aspects of European imperialism.  Negatives like population control, near slave working conditions, apartied, creation of states that ignored tribal regions were all devestating to Africa.  Positives like better infrastructure, trade connections to Europe and the Americas, technological improvement were helpful to Africa.

European Imperialism In Africa:

European Imperialism of Africa

Imperialism Definition--domination by a powerful nation over the political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or region

Sometimes called "The Scramble for Africa", European Imperialism was caused by the loss of American colonies during 1700 and 1800s,  As a result, France, Britain, Portugal, Spain, Germany fought for African territory to replace their lost American work force and source of raw materials.
The European Imperialism is the second wave of European colonization which began in the Americas in the 15th century.
 
The Berlin conference started the main era of European Imperialism in Africa.  The major European powers signed the Berlin Act, formalizing the partitioning of Africa.
•Hostile tribes were thrown together.
•Conflicting loyalties had grave consequences for the  African tribes.
•Natural dividing lines such as rivers or mountains were not considered
 
Different Types of Colonial Rule
–France-direct rule - local elites removed & replaced with European officials
•assimilated African subjects into French culture rather than preserve native traditions
–England-indirect rule – protectorates - local rulers allowed to keep positions of authority and status under European supervision
•benefit of not disrupting local customs and institutions.
–Chinese Spheres of influence for many European countries
 
Causes of African Weakness
•Lack of unity within the region.
•Unstable leadership.
•Technologically inferior to the Europeans.
•Population depleted by Europeans through slavery,  war and disease.
 
Dutch Settlement in South Africa
•South Africa’s earliest inhabitants, San, Khoikhoi, Bantus
•Dutch East India Company founded permanent settlement, 1652
•European residents of Cape included diverse mix
•British took over Cape after 1795
 
Belgian King Leopold II - worst of the European Imperial powers
•King Leopold II of Belgium organized in 1878, a private commercial company
•He was the president and the chief stockholder.
•exploitation of rubber resources.
•Brutal working conditions, millions died, even Europe was horrified at how awful it was
•Joseph Conrad wrote “Heart of Darkness” about Belgian Congo
 
English Settlements in Africa
controlled most of the land between Egypt and South Africa
Cecil Rhodes was a powerful land owner and miner
England became rich from the gold, diamonds and other raw materials in Africa
Apartied in South Africa created horrible injustices for the native Africans